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Frequently asked questions: Ingredients

Our product's ingredients and their quantities were derived from traditional medical formulas, and refined through use over many generations. While based in ancient wisdom, the ingredients are the subject of contemporary and active scientific research. Recent peer reviewed reports and articles on our patch ingredients are summarized here with accompanying weblinks.

Menthol

Drugs usually pass through the skin with low permeability. Menthol is a common penetration enhancer because of its high penetration-enhancing efficiency and safety.

"A multiscale study of the penetration-enhancing mechanism of menthol"
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 4
October 2019, Pages 347-354

Wintergreen Oil (Methyl Salicylate)

For acute joint and muscular pain, methyl salicylate is used as a rubefacient and analgesic in deep heating liniments.

"Compound summary, Methyl salicylate"
PubChem, National Center for Biology Information
National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health Last Modified 2020-12-05

Caster Bean (Ricinus Seed)

Topical application of castor oil has been shown to reduce the pain of neurogenic inflammation.

"Evidence for the Topical Application of Castor Oil"
International Journal of Naturopathic Medicine
Volume 5 March 13, 2012

Clematis Root

Clematis chinensis Osbeck has been used widely in rheumatoid arthritis.

"Anti-inflammatory effects of Clematis chinensis Osbeck extract(AR-6) may be associated with NF-κB, TNF-α, and COX-2 in collagen-induced arthritis in rat "
Rheumatology International
volume 32, pages 3119–3125
October 2012

Frankincense and Myrrh

The main bioactive substances of frankincense are...anti-inflammatory and anticancer. The main bioactive substances of myrrh are...anticancer. When they are paired to form a compound, their chemical composition and pharmacological effects change to some extent. Worthy of note is the acetyl elemolic acid in the combination, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The pharmacological properties of the combination are mostly synergistic, including synergistic anti-inflammatory activity, synergistic anticancer, synergistic analgesic, synergistic antibacterial, and synergistic blood-activating effects.

"Seeing the Unseen of the Combination of Two Natural Resins, Frankincense and Myrrh: Changes in Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities"
Molecules
Volume 24, Issue 17, ID 3076.
August 24, 2019

Momordica Seed

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng (M. cochinchinensis) is a deciduous vine that grows in Southeast Asia. It is known as gac in Vietnam and as Red Melon in English. Gac is reputed to be extremely benificial for health and has been widely used as food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia. In China, the seed of M. cochinchinensis (Chinese name: Mu biezi) is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases. More than 60 chemical constituents have been isolated from M. cochinchinensis. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical practice demonstrate that some chemical constituents of M. cochinchinensis possess wide pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, etc.

"Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activities, Toxicity and Clinical Application of Momordica cochinchinensis"
Current Pharmaceutical Design
Volume 25, Issue 6, pages 715-728.
2019

Sesame Oil

Various properties of sesame oil such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects make it a useful component of some pharmaceutical products.

This double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial study was conducted on 120 patients with upper or lower limbs trauma referred to emergency department. According to the results, sesame oil extracted from Tahini led to a significant decrease in pain severity, pain sensitivity and heaviness of painful site on the second day in the intervention group compared to the placebo one.

"Effects of Topical Sesame Oil Extracted from Tahini ( Ardeh) on Pain Severity in Trauma Patients: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial "
Bulletin of emergency and trauma
Volume 8, Issue 3, pages 179-185
2020

Zinc Oxide

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma).

"Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review"
Dermatology Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 709152
July 10, 2014

Beeswax (Yellow Wax)

Beeswax is the substance that forms the structure of a honeycomb; the bees secrete wax to build the honeycombs where to store honey. Thanks to its rich hydrophobic protective properties, beeswax is in fact present within cosmetics and body products. Beeswax is also characterized by several therapeutic properties of great interest to us; it is thought to be particularly effective in healing bruises, inflammation and burns. Recently, the interest of researchers has moved even on antimicrobial properties of beeswax.

"Beeswax: A minireview of its antimicrobial activity and its application in medicine"
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 9, Issue 9, pages 839-843
September 2016

Pinus Resin

Pinus Resin in the Pro-Sero patch is a dermal adhesive, and traditionally was used for burns and wounds.